مرور نظام‌مند عوامل درون‌سازمانی مؤثر بر داده‌های دولتی باز با رویکرد دستیابی به نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه مدیریت، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران.

10.22059/jipa.2022.341714.3143

چکیده

هدف: داده‌های دولتی در برگیرنده حجم وسیعی از داده‌های ارزشمند است که در صورت باز شدن، می‌توان از آن‌ها در حوزه‌های مختلف بهره‌ برد. بهره‌گیری از داده‌های دولتی باز، علاوه‌بر فراهم‌آوری امکان نظارت بر عملکرد دولت و نیز، ایجاد شفافیت و عدالت، کارکرد بسیار مهم دیگری دارد، همچون دستیابی به نوآوری که اخیراً در کانون توجه بسیاری از محققان قرار گرفته است. تاکنون در پژوهش‌های گذشته، عوامل درون‌سازمانی مؤثر بر داده‌های دولتی باز، برای دستیابی به نوآوری پراکنده و نامنسجم انجام شده است. پژوهش‌ حاضر به‌دنبال شناسایی عوامل درون‌سازمانی مؤثر بر داده‌های دولتی باز، جهت دستیابی به نوآوری در خدمات دولتی است و در صورت تقویت این عوامل، نوآوری‌های متعدد در سطح جامعه به‌واسطه باز شدن داده‌های دولتی محقق خواهد شد.
روش: در این پژوهش به‌منظور شناسایی عوامل درون‌سازمانی مؤثر بر داده‌های دولتی باز و دستیابی به نوآوری در خدمات دولتی، از روش نظام‌مند فراترکیب استفاده شده است. برای این منظور 888 مقاله مرتبط بر مبنای عنوان، چکیده و محتوا پالایش و 51 مقاله نهایی انتخاب شد.
یافته‌ها: براساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از روش تحلیل مضمون، 4 مقوله اصلی، شامل ابعاد فناوری، مدیریتی، انسانی و حکمرانی و 13 مقوله فرعی مشتمل بر جنبه‌های زیرساختی، سامانه‌های کاربردی، داده‌ای، ساختاری، فرایندی، راهبردی، اقتصادی، فردی، ارتباطات سازمانی، فرهنگ سازمانی، سیاستی، قانونی و حقوقی، و مرتبط با حکمرانی داده استخراج شد که دربردارنده 101 مفهوم و 479 کد نهایی است.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که عوامل سخت فناورانه، کمترین میزان اهمیت و به‌ترتیب عوامل داده‌ای، ساختاری و راهبردی بیشترین اهمیت را داشتند. از این رو، در راستای سیاست‌های داده‌های باز، نیاز است ابتدا موضوع نحوه دسترسی به داده‌ها و سپس کیفیت داده‌ها در اولویت سیاست‌گذاران قرار گیرد، در حوزه سیاست‌های ساختاری نیاز است که نحوه بسیج منابع و امکانات در کانون توجه قرار گیرد و در حوزه سیاست‌های راهبردی، باید نحوه تعامل با ذی‏نفعان تبیین شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Systematic Review of Intra-organizational Factors Affecting Open Government Data to Achieve Innovation in Government Services

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Saraee 1
  • Ayoub Mohammadian 2
  • Naser Khani 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Information Technology Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Prof., Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective
Government data contains a large amount of valuable data that can be exploited in various fields if opened. Utilizing open government data, in addition to providing the opportunity to monitor government performance and to create transparency and justice, has another very important function. It helps with developing innovation and the issue has recently been considered by many researchers. However, past research has inconsistently examined the intra-organizational factors influencing open government data to achieve innovation. The present study seeks to identify the intra-organizational factors affecting open government data to achieve innovation in government services through applying the systematic meta-combination method.
Methods
In this research, to identify the intra-organizational factors affecting open government data, the systematic meta-synthesis method was used. For this purpose, 888 related articles based on title, abstract and content were filtered and 51 final articles were obtained.
Results
 Based on the results obtained from the theme analysis method, four main categories including technological, managerial, human, and governance dimensions were distinguished. Also, 13 sub-categories including infrastructure, application systems, data, structural, process, strategic, economic, individual, organizational communication, organizational culture, policy, legal, and governance data were extracted which includes 101 concepts and 479 final codes.
Conclusion
The results of this study, contrary to the initial expectations, proved hard technological factors as the least important and other factors, including data, structural and legal factors, respectively as the most important. Thus, in data policies, first, it’s necessary to access data and consider the data quality. In structural policies, it is necessary to pay attention to how to mobilize resources and facilities. In strategic policies, how to interact with stakeholders is vital to be explained. Based on the findings of this research, the internal organizational factors affecting the formation of innovation based on open government data were classified into four main categories for better policy-making. In the category of technology, it is necessary to consider the technical and technological principles of open data from the aspect of required infrastructure, application systems, and data sources. In the management category, it is necessary to pay attention to structural and process requirements along with strategic and economic aspects. In the human category that examines the soft aspects, it is necessary to pay attention to the issue of open data from individual perspectives, communication, and organizational culture. In the category of governance, policy aspects, organizational rules, and factors related to data governance need to be considered with the aim of achieving innovation from open government data. Therefore, the present study initially tried to provide a comprehensive framework for policy-making in government institutions by interpreting and presenting a new category of internal factors. Secondly, it sought to smooth the path of future research to expand and spread innovation based on open data.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • E-government
  • Open government data
  • Innovation
  • Intra-organizational factors
  • Meta- synthesis
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