واکاوی ویژگی‌های دولت به‌مثابه ‌پلتفرم با استفاده از مرور نظام‌مند و فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری،‌ گروه مدیریت دولتی،‌ پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی،‌ پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

3 دانشیار، مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه امام صادق (ع)، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: ایده دولت به‌مثابه پلتفرم با الهام از کسب‌و‌کارهای پلتفرمی اینترنتی، مدعی است که می‌‌تواند موجب تحول در رویکرد دولت به خدمات عمومی و در نتیجه بهبود کیفیت خدمات دولتی و در عین حال کاهش هزینه شود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی ویژگی‌های دولت ‌به‌‌مثابه‌ پلتفرم و ارائه چارچوبی مفهومی از ویژگی‌ها و برداشت‌های مختلف از آن است.
روش: این پژوهش از نوع کیفی بوده و روش انجام آن، مرور نظام‌مند ادبیات با استفاده از رویکرد فراترکیب برای تحلیل داده‌های مستخرج از منابع منتخب است. در نهایت، در فرایند مرور نظام‌مند، 38 منبع برای تحلیل کیفی و کدگذاری انتخاب و استفاده شدند.
یافته‌ها: در نتیجه تجمیع و دسته‌بندی کدهای احصاشده، تعداد 29 مفهوم (ویژگی) شکل گرفت که با توجه به جنس، در سه مقوله‌ ویژگی‌های ذاتی، فنی و اجرایی دسته‌بندی شدند. به این ترتیب، برخی ویژگی‌های دولت به‌مثابه پلتفرم عبارت‌اند از: باز بودن، داده‌محوری، استفاده از منابع مشترک، خاصیت شبکه‌ای، توانمندسازی، شهروندمحوری، پودمانی (ماژولار) بودن، تعامل‌پذیری، سادگی، شکل‌گیری تدریجی، استفاده از بهترین‌های موجود و... .
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس این پژوهش، برداشت‌های مختلف از این مفهوم به‌معنای تفاوت و تمایز کامل برداشت‌ها از این مفهوم نیست، بلکه از کنار هم قرار گرفتن برخی ویژگی‌های ذاتی، فنی و اجرایی، سه نوع زاویه نگاه به‌مفهوم دولت ‌به‌مثابه‌ پلتفرم شکل گرفته است که عبارت‌اند از: دولت به‌مثابه پلتفرم فناوری، دولت به‌مثابه پلتفرم داده و دولت به‌مثابه اکوسیستم نوآوری. در این پژوهش تلاش شده تا ضمن احصای ویژگی‌های مشترک، تفاوت این برداشت‌ها در قالب چارچوب مفهومی جامعی نیز مشخص شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Government as a Platform Characteristics: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Synthesis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Yakhchali 1
  • Reza Tahmasebi 2
  • Meisam Latifi 3
  • Amin Faraji Mollaie 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
3 Associate Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Management, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective:Inspired from online business platforms, the idea of Government as a Platform (GaaP) claims that it can transform the government's approach to public service to a better, smarter and cheaper public service, and to "do more with more". This research aims to investigate and identify the characteristics of Government as a Platform and to develop a conceptual framework to show the characteristics as well as different interpretations of the concept.
Methods: This qualitative research has been conducted through a systematic literature review followed by a meta-synthesis approach. From 776 documents found in the screening stage, 38 research documents were selected for coding, data extracting and analysis as the output of the systematic review to enter the meta-synthesis process.
Results: Aggregation and classification of the codes extracted, formed 29 concepts (characteristics): Openness, Data-driven, Sharing, Block Structure,  Network Effects, Citizen Empowerment, Citizen Centricity, Collaboration, Modularity, Interoperability, Simplicity, Evolutionary Process, ReUsability, Using Common or Shared Sources, Using Existing Best, Experimentation, Achievability, Service Oriented Architecture, Accessibility, Integrity, Leading by Examples, Learning from Hackers, Using Data Mining, Agility, Flexibility, Availability, Digital as default, One to Many, and Re-Organizing Government. These concepts were classified into three categories: Basic characteristics, Technical characteristics and Executive characteristics.
Conclusion: This research concludes that available interpretations of Government as a Platform are not completely diverse and different views. Perhaps achieving some combination of GaaP basic, technical and executive characteristics, form three views or layers: Government as a technology platform, Government as a data platform and Government as an innovation ecosystem. Overall if Government as a Platform is to be a meaningful concept, it needs to incorporate some level of all three of these layers. This research tried to identify the GaaP characteristics and their relation to these different points of views (layers) in form of a comprehensive conceptual framework.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Government as a Platform
  • Digital Government
  • Open governance
  • Systematic review
  • Meta-synthesis
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