Designing a Domestic Model to Determine the Dimensions of Human Resource Flexibility in Public Banks

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: The present study aims to provide a model of human resource flexibility in public banks of Iran. Human resource flexibility is an organizational capability variable that refers to an organization's ability to cope with its changing environment. Due to the differences in the viewpoints of researchers regarding the various dimensions of HR Flexibility and because of the expressed criticisms about the incomprehensiveness of the discussed dimensions, the further investigation seemed necessary. This study tried to provide a novel domestic framework to seal the present research gap.
Methods: This survey-exploratory research is both applied and qualitative. Its statistical population of comprised of a group of experts including human resource management executives and experts in banks as well as university professors. Adopting the Targeted sampling method, some of the participants were selected as the statistical sample and were interviewed consequently. The selection of experts and data collection via interviewing them occurred until the theoretical saturation was reached. Finally, six experts were interviewed. Thematic analysis was then used to analyze the gathered qualitative data.
Results: Analyzing the data obtained from the conducted interviews, 79 initial themes were extracted. The identified themes were classified into 27 general categories called Main Themes and then into 5 dimensions by paying close attention to the similarities and differences among them.
Conclusion: This study could eventually put forward a five-dimensional model in the field of human resource flexibility in the banking industry. Flexibility in human resource management activities, perceptual-cognitive flexibility, skill flexibility, individual and organizational learning, and behavioral flexibility were the dimensions of this model.


Albrecht, K. (2009). Organizational Intelligence & Knowledge Management: Thinking outside the Silos.
Aybaghi Esfahani, S., Ghafourian Shagerdi, A. & Elahi, R. (2019). Synergistic leadership, post-modern approach to human resource flexibility and voice behavior. Modiriyat Farda, 17(55), 17-30. (in Persian)
Beltrán-Martín, I., Roca-Puig, V., Escrig-Tena, A. & Bou-Llusar, J. C. (2008). Human resource flexibility as a mediating variable between high performance work systems and performance. Journal of Management, 34(5), 1009–1044.
Bhattacharya, M., Gibson, D. E. & Doty, D. H. (2005). The effects of flexibility in employee skills, employee behaviors, and HR practices on firm performance. Journal of Management, 31, 622-640.
Camps, J., Oltra, V., Aldas-Manzano, J., Buenaventura-Vera, G., Torres-Carballo, F. (2015). Individual Performance in Turbulent Environments: The Role of Organizational Learning Capability and Employee Flexibility. Human Resource Management, 55(3), 363-383.
De La Lastra, S. F. P., Martin-Alcazar, F., & Sanchez-Gardey, G. (2014). Functional flexibility in human resource management systems: Conceptualization and measurement. International Journal of Business Administration, 5(1), 1-14.
Do, B. R., Yeh P.W., Madsen, J. (2016). Exploring the relationship among human resource flexibility, Organizational innovation and adaptability culture. Chinese Management Studies, 10(4), 657-674.
Ketkar, S., Sett, P.K. (2009). HR flexibility and firm performance: analysis of a multi-level causal model. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(5), 1009-1038.
Kumari, I. G., & Pradhan, R. K. (2014). Human resource flexibility and organizational effectiveness: role of organizational citizenship behaviour and employee intent to stay. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(11), 43-51.
Martinez-Sanchez, A., Perez, M.p., de-Luis-Carnicer, P., Vela-Jimenez, M.J. (2007). Telework, human resource flexibility and firm performance. Journal of New Technology, Work and Employment, 22(3), 208-223.
Martinez-Sanchez A., Vela-Jimenez, M.J, Perez, P.M., de-Luis-Carnicer, P. (2009). Innovation and labour flexibility: A Spanish study of differences across industries and type of innovation. International Journal of Manpower, 30(4), 360-376.
Mosayebirad, M., Ghalavandi, H. & Hassanbaglu, S. (2016). Investigating the relationship between organizational intelligence and human resource flexibility. Fourth International Conference on Applied Research in Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, 15th September 2016. (in Persian)
Ngo, H.Y., Loi, R. (2008). Human resource flexibility, organizational culture and firm performance: An investigation of multinational firms in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(9), 1654-1666.
Nilipour Tabatabaei, S.A. & Omidvar, H. (2017), Assessing human resources flexibility in knowledge sharing in government organizations Case study: Bank Melli. Second International Conference on Management and Accounting, Tehran, 6th July 2017.
 (in Persian)
Pradhan, R. K., Kumar, U. (2017). Human resource flexibility and organisational ffectiveness mediating role of organisational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 174(3/4), 282-300.
Ramezani, Y., Damghani, E. & Imani, E. (2016). Analysis of the model of fitness and flexibility of strategic human resource management. Third National Conference on Applied Economics and Management, Babolsar, 15th July 2016. (in Persian)
Rastegar, M.A. & Hokminasab, S. (2016). Investigating the effect of talent management on human resource flexibility. Third Global Conference on Management, Economics, Accounting and Humanities at the Beginning of Third Millennium Conference, Shiraz, 19th May 2016. (in Persian)
Sehat, S., Izadpanah, B. & Ghorbani Paji, A. (2019). The Effect of Human Resource Flexibility on Organizational Effectiveness with Respect to Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Iran Insurance Company. Quarterly Productivity Management (Beyond Management), 13(48), 143-180. (in Persian)
Storey, J., Wright, M.P. & Ulrich, D. (2019). Strategic human resource management. (First published), Routledge, New York.
Úbeda-García, M., Claver-Cortés, E., Marco-Lajara, B., & Zaragoza-Sáez, P. (2017). Human resource flexibility and performance in the hotel industry: The role of organizational ambidexterity. Personnel Review, 46(4), 824-846.
Úbeda-García, M., Claver-Cortés, E., Marco-Lajara, B., Zaragoza-Sáez, P., & García-Lillo, F. (2018). High performance work system and performance: Opening the black box through the organizational ambidexterity and human resource flexibility. Journal of Business Research, 88, 397-406.
Way, S. A., Tracey, J. B., Fay, C. H., Wright, P. M., Snell, S. A., Chang, S., & Gong, Y. (2015). Validation of a multidimensional HR flexibility measure. Journal of Management, 41(4), 1098-1131.
Way, S. A., Wright, P. M., Tracey, J. B., Isnard, J. F. (2018). HR flexibility Precursors and the contingent impact on firm financial performance. Human Resources Management, 57(2), 567-582.
Wright, P.M. & Snell, S.A. (1998). Toward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 756-772.
Yazdi Balajadeh, M. & Garoosi, A. (2017). Determining the effect of human resource flexibility on job performance (Case study: Parsian Bank, Tehran Province), First National Conference on Iran and World New Researches in Management, Economics, Accounting and Humanities, Shiraz, 18th May 2017.
Zhang, B. (2019). Human resource change-agent role, state ownership, and employee behavioural flexibility, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 58(2), 268-288.
Zolin, R., Kuckertz, A. & Kautonen, T. (2011). Human resource flexibility and strong ties in entrepreneurial teams. Journal of Business Research, 64(10), 1097-1103.