Understanding the Role of Administrators' Personal and Social Values on Implementation of Approved Policies in Iranian Public Organizations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D., Department of Public Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., Department of Public Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Objective: The purpose of this research is to understand the personal and social values of public administrators affecting on the implementation process of approved policies. How the administrators and public servants affect the policies and decisions of policy-makers is a critical issue in public administration; the issue that has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of Public Administration.
Methods: In this research, we conducted semi-structured interviews with twenty middle managers in five state organizations. The managers were selected through a purposive sampling method. The interview questions, which were extracted from reviewing the related literature, were divided into two groups of personal and social values. Finally, theme analysis was used to analyze the interviews.
Results: The research findings on the social values dimension are: Benevolence, Compassion, Commitment to the Public Interest, Sacrifice, Awakening, and Serving, and on the personal values dimension are: Need for Achievement, Deontology, Citizens' Dignity, Flexibility, Organizational Citizenship, Fair and Just Delivery of Public Service, Religious and training issues, Profitability, Lawfulness, and Professionalism.
Conclusion: This research did not aim at proposing ethical and behavioral values or codes in the governmental section, yet its purpose was to study the reality of what the administrators and public servants actually do, and the ways they influence the policy makers policies and decisions. Finally, some recommendations 


Main Subjects

Abolhasani-Ranjbar, A., Daneshfard, K., & Faghihi, A. (2018). An Agenda Setting for the Reformation Policies of Administrative System in Iran. Journal of Public Administration, 9(4), 615-640. (in Persian)
Alavi, S. B., & Gholipour, A. (2009) Studying the organizational citizenship behaviors of faculty members: a study in sharif university of technology. Iranian Journal of Management Sciences,4(14), 1-30. (in Persian)
Asadi, M., Peykani, M. H., & Rashidpur, A. (2018). Presentation of an Effective Public Policy Implementation Model in the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Case Study: Islamic Republic of Iran Customs Administration). Journal of Public Administration, 9(4), 591-614. (in Persian)
Barnard, C. (1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge: Belnap Press of Harvard.
Bellone, C. J. (Eds.) (1980). Organization theory and the new public administration. London: Allyn and Bacon.
Bersch, K., Sérgio, P., & Taylor, M. M. (2017). State capacity, bureaucratic politicization, and corruption in the brazilian state. Governance, 30(1), 105-124.
Borst, R. T., & Lako, C. J. (2017). Proud to be a public servant? An analysis of the work-related determinants of professional pride among Dutch public servants. International Journal of Public Administration, 40(10), 875-887.
Box, R. C. (2015a). Public service values. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Box, R. C. (2015b). The human element: Bureaucracy, gender, and race. Administration & Society,47(5), 488-506.
Bozeman, B. (2007). Public values and public interest: Counterbalancing economic individualism. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology .Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Buchanan, J. M., & Tollison, R. D. (Eds.). (1984). The Theory of public choice--II. University of Michigan Press.
Campbell, C., & Peters, B. G. (1988). The politics/administration dichotomy: Death or merely change?. Governance, 1(1), 79-99.
Christensen, T., Lie, A., & Laegrid, P. (2007). Still fragmented government or reassertion of the centre?. In Christensen, T., & Laegrid, P. (Ed.), Transcending new public management: The transformation of public sector reforms (pp.17-41), Aldershot: Ashgate.
Dahl, R.A. (1947). The science of public administration: Three problems. Public Administration Review, 7(1), 1-11.
Dahl, R. A. (1970). A preface to democratic theory. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Demir, T. (2008). Politics and administration: A review of research and some suggestions. Springfield: University of Illinois, Department of Public Administration.
Demir, T., & Nyhan, R. C. (2008). The Politics – Administration Dichotomy: An empirical search for correspondence between theory and practice. Public Administration Review, January/February, 68(1), 81-96.
Denhardt, R. B., & Denhardt, J. V. (2000). The new public service: Serving rather than steering. Public Administration Review, 60(6), 549-559.
Frederickson, H. G. (1994). Research and knowledge in administrative ethics. In T. Cooper (Ed.) Handbook of administrative ethics (pp. 31-47), New York: Marcel Dekker.
Hansen, K. M., & Ejersbo, N. (2002). The relationship between politicians and administrators– a logic of disharmony. Public Administration, 80(4), 733-750.
Hughes, O. E. (2003). Public Management and Administration: An Introduction. Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Jensen, C. B., & McGrath, R. J. (2011). Making rules about rulemaking: A comparison of presidential and parliamentary systems. Political Research Quarterly, 64(3), 656-667.
Jørgensen, T. B., & Bozeman, B. (2007). Public values: An inventory. Administration & Society,39(3), 354-381.
Kernaghan, K. (2003). Integrating values into public service: The values statement as centerpiece. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 711-719.
Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. E., & Liao, T. F. (2004). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Lipsky, M. (1969). Toward a theory of street-level bureaucracy. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin.
Lipsky, M. (2010). Street-Level Bureaucracy, 30th Ann. Ed.: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. Russell Sage Foundation.
Maass, A. A., & Radway, L. I. (2001). Gauging administrative responsibility. In C. Stivers (Ed.) Democracy, bureaucracy, and the study of administration (pp. 163-181), Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Marini, F. (Ed.) (1968). Toward a New Public Administration: The Minnowbrook Perspective. New York: Chandler,
Marrow, H. B. (2009). Immigrant bureaucratic incorporation: The dual roles of professional missions and government policies. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 756-776.
McCubbins, M. D., & Schwartz, T. (1984). Congressional oversight overlooked: Police patrols versus fire alarms. American Journal of Political Science, 28(1), 165-179.
Meier, K. J., & Krause, G. A. (2003). The scientific study of bureaucracy: An overview. In Krause, G. A. (Eds.) Politics, policy and organizations: Frontiers in the scientific study of bureaucracy (pp. 1-19), Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
Meier, K. J., & O'Toole, L. J. (2006). Political control versus bureaucratic values: Reframing the debate. Public Administration Review, 66(2), 177-192.
Moe, T. M. (2005). Political control and the power of the agent. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 22(1), 1-29.
Molander, A., Grimen, H., & Eriksen, E. O. (2012). Professional discretion and accountability in the welfare state. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 29(3), 214-230.
Molavi, Z., Tahmasebi, R., Danaeefard, H., & Hamidizadeh, A. (2017). Bureauphobia: the Ambivalentl Look of Citizens on Public Services. Journal of Public Administration, 9(2), 213-234. (in Persian)
Molina, A. D., & McKeown, C. L. (2012). The heart of the profession: Understanding public service values. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(2), 375-396.
Moore, M. H. (1995). Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nabatchi, T. (2018). Public values frames in administration and governance. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, 1(1), 59-72.
Neuman, W. L. (2007). Basic of social research: Qualititative and quantitative approaches. Second Edition. New York: Pearson Education Inc.
Neuman, W. L. (2016). Social research methods: Qualititative and quantitative approaches. Translated by: Faghihi, A., & Aghaz, A. 1st Edition, Tehran: Termeh Publishing and Iranian Association for Management Sciences. (in Persian)
Ostrom, V. (2008). The intellectual crisis in American public administration. 3rd Edition, Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
Overeem, P. (2005). The value of the dichotomy: Politics, administration, and the political neutrality of administrators. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 27(2), 311-329.
Overeem, P. (2010). The politics-administration dichotomy: Toward a constitutional perspective. New York: Routledge.
Pant, A., & Ojha, A. K. (2017). Managerial Values and organizational identities in the developing world: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Human Values, 23(1), vii–xii.
Peters, B. G. (2010). Bureaucracy and democracy. Public Organization Review, 10(3), 209-222.
Rahnavard, F. (2018). Factors Influencing Merger of Iranian Public Sector Organizations. Journal of Public Administration, 9(4), 569-590. (in Persian)
Rastegar, A., Motameni, A., & Hemmati, A. (2017). The role of organizational values on the creation of organizational commitment. Public Administration Vision, 28, 157-179.
(in Persian)
Rohr, J. (1978). Ethics for bureaucrats: An essay on law and values. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Rosenbloom, D. (2008). The politics–administration dichotomy in US historical context. Public Administration Review, 68(1), 57-60.
Simon, H. A. (1947). Administrative behavior. New York: The Free Press.
Stoker, G. (2003). Public value management (PVM): A new resolution of the democracy/efficiency tradeoff. Institute for Political and Economic Governance (IPEG), University of Manchester, UK.
Stoker, G. (2006). Public value management a new narrative for networked governance? The American Review of Public Administration, 36(1), 41-57.
Svara, J. H. (2015). The ethics primer for public administrators in government and nonprofit organizations. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Van der Wal, Z., & Huberts, L. (2008). Value solidity in government and business: Results of an empirical study on public and private sector organizational values. The American Review of Public Administration, 38(3), 264-285.
Van der Wal, Z., De Graaf, G., & Lasthuizen, K. (2008). What’s valued most? Similarities and differences between the organizational values of the public and private sector. Public Administration, 86(2), 465-482.
Van Wart, M. (1998). Changing public sector values. London: Garland Publishing.
Waldo, D. (1984). The administrative state: A study of the political theory of public administration (2nd ed.). New York: Holmes & Meier.
Weber, M (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and Edited by: Gerth H. H., & Mills, C. W. Oxford: oxford University Press.
Wilson, W. (1887). The study of administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2, 197–222.
Yang, L., & van der Wal, Z. (2014). Rule of morality vs. rule of law? An exploratory study of civil servant values in China and the Netherlands. Public Integrity, 16(2), 187-206.