Modeling Contingency Governance for Effectiveness Implementation of the General Policies of Article (44) of the Constitution

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD in Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, Iran

2 Associated Prof. of Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Branch, Iran

3 Assistant Prof. of Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Branch, Iran


The purpose of this study is to design a contingency governance model for the effective implementation of the general principles of constitution (Article 44) in the country. In this research, the concepts, dimensions, components and indicators were reflected in the management books and the items of the questionnaire were also compiled from the approved indicators of the experts. The current state of effective implementation of the general principles of Article 44 of the constitution was examined by a single-sample T test and it was revealed that the public sector is in a rather favorable situation compared to the other two sectors. The results of the simple linear regression test showed that the public sector was 42.8%, the cooperative sector was 31.4%, and the private sector was 35.6% effective on the overall policy implementation of this principle of the constitution. Multiple linear regression analysis also indicated that the triple sections of predictor variables had 84.7% effect on the criterion variable. Artificial nural network model approved the results of the linear regression test, so it is expected that public sector continues to bypass the other two sectors as regards with the implementation effectiveness.


Main Subjects

Abdulhamid, M. & Abdolhosseinzadeh, M. (2017). The discovery and extraction of the components and sub-systems of the faculty of government through the implementation of a comparative study of elected colleges. Public Administration Quarterly, (9), 378-359. (in Persian)
Ansell, C. & Maxwell, R. (2009). Protesting food: NGOs and political mobilization in Europe’, in Christopher Ansell and David Vogel (eds), What’s the Beef? The Contested Governance of European Food Safety, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Atkinson, P. (2013). Political Governance? Legitimation, regulation and environmental governance’, in Jacob Park, Ken Conca and Mathias Finger (eds), The Crisis of Global Environmental Governance: Towards a New Political Economy of Sustainability, London and New York: Routledge.
Backstrand, K. (2010). Democratising global governance? Stakeholder democracy after the World Summit on Sustainable Development. European Journal of International Relations, 12(14), 67–98.
Bostrom, M. (2011). How state-dependent is a non-state driven rule-making project? The case of forest certification in Sweden. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 5(2), 165–180.
Carter, N. (2015). The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. 2nd edn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Danaeifard, H., Hosseini, S., Fanni, A. (2014). Public Policy Capacity-Development Key, Saffar Publishing, Tehran. (in Persian)
Ebadi, N. (2015). A Survey on the Maturity of Electronic Governance in the Ministry of Interior Portal. Public Administration Quarterly, (8), 487-510.
(in Persian)
Farazmand, A. (2012). The Future of Public Administration Challenges and Opportunities- A Critical Perspective. Administration & Society, 44(4), 148–165.
Graham, B. (2012). The effectiveness of non-state governance schemes: a comparative study of forest certification in Norway and Sweden. International Environmental Agreements, 5, 251–276.
Haas, P. (2011). Addressing the global governance deficit. Global Environmental Politics, 4(4), 291–436.
Kettel, C. (2009). Political power beyond the state: problematic of government. The British Journal of Sociology, 43(2), 377–391.
Kronsell, A. (2014). Accountability of networked climate governance: the rise of transnational climate partnerships. Global Environmental Politics, 8(3), 168–178.
Lapalombara, J. (2007). Reflections on political parties and political development, four decades later. Party politics, 13(2), 141-154.
Lovbrand, E. (2015). Implementation gap in governance. Global Environmental Politics, 9(2), 74–100.
Meyer, J.W. (2012).Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 275-296.
Moghimi, M., Pourezzat, A.A., Danaeifard, H., Ahmadi, H. (2015). Designing and explaining the budgeting model based on good governance indicators in Iran. Public Administration Quarterly, (8), 645-665. (in Persian).
Murphy, C. (2011). Global governance: poorly done and poorly understood’, in Rorden Wilkinson (ed.), The Global Governance Reader, London and New York: Routledge, originally published (2000) in International Affairs, 76(4).
Nejat, A., Mirzadeh, A., Shahbazi, M., Javaheri Kamel, M. (2010). The Causes of Failure of Government-Owned Companies in the Form of Article 44 of the Constitution. Journal of Commerce, 55, 75-108. (in Persian)
Nikoeghbal, A. (2010). The Taxes and Burdens of Government Bonding. Iranian economy, (7), 20-22. (in Persian)
Oghbaei, M. (2017). Implementation of Public Policy with a Governance Approach. Sokhanvaran Publishing, Tehran. (in Persian)
Omidian, M., Taleghani, Gh., Mohammadi, F. (2015). Analysis of the role of good governance in promoting human development. Public Administration Quarterly, (7), 413-436. (in Persian)
Paterson, M. (2013). Automobile Politics: Ecology and Cultural Political Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scharpf, F. (2010). Problem Solving Effectiveness and Democratic Accountability in the European Union. Political Science Series, Vienna: Institute for Advanced Studies.
Tehrani, M., Maleki, M., Ghofrani, F. (2014). Good governance and participation in each section of the implementation of Principle 44 of the Constitution. Parliament and Strategy Quarterly, (79), 185- 222. (in Persian)
Winter, G. (2009). Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.