Investigating the Effects of Religiosity on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 MSc. Student, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Religion is one of the most important factors which shape the values and beliefs of many people in different societies, and has indisputable effects on human behavior. These effects are present in organizational work environments, as well. In this paper, direct and indirect effects of religiosity on one of the most important dimensions of organizational behavior, namely organizational citizenship behavior, has been investigated. For this purpose, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and positive affect were identified as mediator variables and were also investigated. Conducting structural equation modeling on a sample data of 124 questionnaires gathered from managers of communication and telecommunication sector in Tabriz town, revealed that there is no positive impact of religiosity on OCB; However religiosity showed to have a positive effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and positive affect. On the other hand, a positive effect of organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior was also concluded. As a result, though religiosity has no direct effect on organizational citizenship behavior, it has an indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior through organizational commitment


خدایاری‌فرد م. و همکاران. (1388). گزارشنهاییطرحپژوهشی: آمادهسازیمقیاسدینداریوارزیابیسطوحدینداری اقشارمختلفجامعةایران. دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران، نسخه الکترونیکی.##
شجاعی‌زند ع. (1384). مدلی برای سنجش دینداری در ایران، جامعه‌شناسی ایران، 6(1)، 34-66.##
Allen N. J. and Meyer J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.##
Ano G. G. and Vasconcelles E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psycho- logical adjustment to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 461-480.##
Babin B. J. and Boles J. S. (1998). Employee Behavior in a Service Environment: A Model and Test of Potential Differences between Men and Women. Journal of Marketing. 62, 77-91.##
Bateman T. S. and Organ D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship.” Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587–595.##
Beit-Hallahmi B. and Argyle, M. (1997). The psychology-of-religious behavior, belief and experience. Routledge: London and New York.##
Blau P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.##
Blotch M. (1985). Religion and Ritual. In the social science Encyclopedia, edited by A. Kuper and J. Jumper. London: Routledge.##
Bozeman D. P. and Perrewe P. L. (2001). The effects of item content overlap on organizational Commitment Questionnaire and turnover cognitions relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 1, 161-73.##
Cem Ersoy N. Marise Ph. B. Derous, E., and Van der Molen, H. T. (2011). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior among blue- and white-collar workers in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,  35, 356–367. ##
Cohen A. and Vigoda, E. (2000). Do good citizens make good organizational citizens? Administration and Society, 32, 596-624.##
Davie J. (2007). Sociology of Religion. Sage Publications, Ltd. London.##
Diener E. Suh M. Lucas E. and Smith H. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302.##
Dubinsky A. J. and Harley S. W. (1986). A path-analytic study of a model of salesperson performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 14, 36–46.##
George J. M. and Jones, G. R. (1997). Organizational spontaneity in context. Human Performance, 10, 153–170.##
George J. M. (1991). State or trait: Effects of positive mood on pro-social behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 299–307.##
George J. and Jones G. (2008). Understanding and managing organizational behavior. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.##
Ghazzawi I. (2008). Job satisfaction antecedents and consequences: a new conceptual Framework and research agenda. The Business Review, 11, 1-11.##
Glock C. and Stark R. (1965). Religion and society in tension. Chicago: Randmcnally.##
Glock C. and Stark R. (1970). American Piety: The Nature of Religious Commitment. University of California Press.##
Isen A. M. and Baron R. A. (1991). Positive affect as a factor in organizational-behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 13, 1–53. ##
Jamal M. and Badawi J. (1993). Job stress among Muslim immigrants in North America: Moderating effects of religiosity. Stress medicine, 9,  145–151.##
Kamil N. M. Sulaiman M. Osman-Gani A. M. and Ahmad A. (2010). Implications of Piety (Taqwa) on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) from Islamic Perspective: A Study of Professionals in Southeast Asia. 9th International Conference of the Academy of HRD (Asia Chapter), 166-181.##
Khraim H. (2010). Measuring Religiosity in Consumer Research from Islamic Perspective. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2, 166-179.##
King J. E.  and  Williamson I. O. (2005). Workplace Religious Expression, Religiosity and Job Satisfaction: Clarifying a Relationship. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 2, 173-198.##
Kumar A. and Raj L. (2009). Identification of Causes of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Qualitative study of LIC managers. Indian Journal of Social Science Researches, 6, 17-28.##
Kutcher E. J. Bragger J. D. Rodriguez-Sredinicki O. and Masco J. M. (2010). The Role of Religiosity in Stress, Job Attitudes, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 319–337.##
Locke E. A. (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction, in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. ed., Dunnette, M.D., Rand mcnally College Publishing Company, Chicago, 1297-1349.##
Lowery C. M. Beadles N. A. and Krilowicz T. J. (2002). Note on the Relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and Organizational citizenship behavior. Psychological Report, 91, 607-617.##
Martinson O. B. and Wilkening E. A. (1983). Religion, work specialization, and job satisfaction: interactive effects. Review of Religious Research, 24, 347.##
Mcfarland S. (1984). Psychology of Religion: A call for a broader paradigm. American Psychologist, 39, 321-324.##
Mehboob F. and Bhutto N. A. (2012). Job satisfaction as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: A study of faculty members at business institutes. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 3, 1147-1155.##
Meyer J. and Allen N. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89.##
Meyer J. and Allen N. (1997). Commitment in the workplace. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.##
Meyer J. P. Stanley D. J. Herscovitch L. and Topolnytsky L. (2002). Affective, Continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of Antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.##
Mowday R. T. Porter L. W. and Steers R. M. (1982). Employee-organization Linkages: The psychology of commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. New York: Academic Press.##
Mroczek D. K. and Kolarz C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (5) 1333-1349.##
Nelson L. D. and Dynes R. R. (1976). The Impact of Devotionalism and Attendance on Ordinary and Emergency Helping Behavior. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 15, 47–59.##
Organ D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA.##
Organ D. W. and Konovsky M. (1989). Cognitive Versus Affective Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74 (1), 157-164.##
Organ D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship Behavior. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.). Research in organizational Behavior, 12, 43–72.##
Podsakoff P. M. Mackenzie S. B. Paine J. B. and Bachrach D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513-563.##
Pouryouseffi H. (1984). College impact on religiosity of Muslim students studying in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kalamazoo, Michigan.##
Renzetti C. M. and Curran D. J. (1998). Living Sociology. Allyn & Bacon, United States.##
Riketta M. (2002). Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23 (3),  257–266.##
Robbins M. and Francis L. J. (1996). Are religious people happier? A study among undergraduates. Research in religious education, Herefordshire, UK: Gracewing. 207-217.##
Rokeach M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.##
Serajzadeh S.H. (1998). Muslim religiosity and delinquency: an examination of Iranian youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Essex.##
Shamsuddin Q. M. I. (1992). Dimensions of Muslim religiosity: Measurement considerations. In Qur’anic Concepts of Human Psyche, ed. Zafar Afaq Ansari. Islamabad: Institute of Islamic Culture.##
Shokrkon H. and Naami A. (2009). The Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance in Ahvaz Factory Worker. Journal of Education & Psychology, 3 (2) 39-52.##
Sikorska-Simmons E. (2005). Religiosity and Workrelated Attitudes among Paraprofessional and Professional Staff in Assisted Living. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 18, 65–82.##
Smith C. A. Organ, D. W. and Near J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 655–663.##
Smith T. B. Mccullough M. E. and Poll J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 614-636. ##
Snir R. and Harpaz I. (2004). Attitudinal and Demographic Antecedents of Workaholism. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 520–536.##
Taai N. M. (1985). Religious Behavior Scale. Kuwait: Arrobyaan Publishing.##
Wagner S. and Rush M. (2000). Altruistic organizational citizenship behavior: context, disposition and age. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 379-391.##
Watson D. Clark L. A. and Tellegen A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.##
Williams L. J. and Anderson S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of Organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601–617.##
Wright D. F. (1989). The effect of stress and degree of religiosity on job satisfaction among women managers working in religious organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Howard University, Washington, DC.##
Wright T. A. and Staw B. M. (1999). Affect and favorable work outcomes: two longitudinal tests of the happy-productive worker thesis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1-23.##
York M. (1981). August, Survey Finds Religious Belief Contributes to Job Satisfaction. Risk Management, 28, 56.##